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Capella 4010 Assessment 3

Capella 4010 Assessment 3 Interdisciplinary Plan Proposal Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4010 Leading in Intrprof Practice Prof. Name Date Interdisciplinary Plan Proposal The issue we aim to resolve is the high incidence of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) related to medication errors in the nursing department at Miami Valley Hospital. The desired outcome is a 30% reduction in these events within the next six months, improving patient safety and organizational efficiency. Objective To achieve a 30% reduction in ADEs related to medication errors at Miami Valley Hospital within six months by implementing a closed-loop medication administration system and specialized nurse training in medication safety protocols. This will improve patient safety and reduce costs related to malpractice and readmissions. Questions and Predictions Monthly audits of medication error rates, patient surveys on perceived quality of care, and analysis of hospital readmissions due to medication complications will be conducted to gauge the plan’s success. These audits will specifically focus on the effectiveness of the closed-loop system and specialized nurse training (Elbeddini et al., 2021; Stark et al., 2020). Change Theories and Leadership Strategies To achieve our objective of reducing Adverse Drug Events (ADEs), we are grounding our approach in a robust change theory and effective leadership strategy. Our focus is on creating buy-in from an interdisciplinary team, fostering effective collaboration, and ensuring the smooth implementation of our plan. The change theory we have selected is the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model, effectively improving quality and safety in healthcare settings (AHRQ, n.d.). The PDSA model will guide us through four iterative phases: planning, doing, studying, and acting. This framework encourages a disciplined approach to testing and implementing changes, allowing us to start on a small scale and expand our interventions based on evidence and data. By using the PDSA model, we anticipate incremental improvements that align with our prediction of achieving a 30% reduction in six months. For leadership, we propose the adoption of Transformational Leadership, a strategy emphasizing inspiration and motivation among team members (Ree & Wiig, 2019). Transformational leaders excel in creating a sense of commitment and ownership, which is crucial for gaining interdisciplinary team buy-in. Given that our objective involves implementing new medication administration protocols, this strategy will help team members embrace changes more willingly. It will also address staff morale and job satisfaction by creating a work environment where each member feels valued and empowered. Capella 4010 Assessment 3 By integrating the PDSA model with Transformational Leadership strategies, we aim to create a synergistic effect that enhances our team’s ability to collaborate, implement the plan effectively, and gain buy-in from all stakeholders within Miami Valley Hospital. Here, the experienced nurses will take the role of transformational leaders to motivate and inspire newer staff on best medication administration practices. Through mentorship, team members will improve their skills and gain more vital job satisfaction and commitment to patient safety. Moreover, the implementation of training and closed-loop systems in a smaller scale will set an example for wide-spreading the proposal, ultimately reducing medical errors, facilitating better interdisciplinary collaboration, and developing buy-in for the project.  Team Collaboration Strategy Each team member has distinct roles and responsibilities to effectively implement our plan to reduce Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) in Miami Valley Hospital. From administrators to frontline healthcare staff, everyone has jobs to perform in the effective implementation of our two-pronged plan proposal. Administrators, along with finance personnel, will ensure adequate funding is available for the training and development of a closed-loop system. IT personnel will look after the software and security measures within the system. The quality improvement team will conduct audits, monitor implementation and outcomes, and suggest adjustments to the plan. Lastly, healthcare professionals will play an essential role- physicians will be responsible for accurate medication orders and will undergo training to recognize the signs of ADEs. Pharmacists are asked to verify the medication orders physicians enter and educate nurses about potential drug interactions or complications, and nurses will handle medication administration and are responsible for reporting any incidences of ADEs. They will also engage in mentorship programs to understand rigorous medication administration procedures. Members from different disciplines can understand their respective roles better, thereby enhancing communication and efficiency (Kolanczyk et al., 2019). Best Practices for Interdisciplinary Collaboration Given Miami Valley Hospital’s existing needs to address communication challenges, workload, and inadequate training, these best practices are particularly relevant to improve collaboration among the team members. By focusing on clear communication, regular progress meetings, and utilization of digital platforms, we are incorporating best practices that will ensure that the team is on the same platform, understands each other’s role and expertise, and effectively communicates their concerns. By explicitly defining roles and applying a collaborative approach, we are setting the stage for a more cohesive, efficient, and ultimately successful implementation of our plan to reduce ADEs. Thus ensuring a higher likelihood of success in reducing ADEs by 30% within six months.  Required Organizational Resources To ensure the success of our plan to reduce Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) at Miami Valley Hospital, various types of resources are necessary. Additional staff will be required to form quality improvement teams responsible for monitoring implementation and outcomes, which will ultimately require $12,000. For the training and development, we will require various training materials like handouts, presentations, and interactive online modules. The estimated cost for these training resources is approximately $8,000. We will need a robust closed-loop medication administration system and data analytics software to handle auditing and generate regular reports to track ADE incidences effectively, which will cost approximately $10,000. Access to patients’ health records and different departments like pharmacy and nursing is crucial for the plan. While direct costs might not be associated with this, ensuring proper permissions and protocols will require administrative time. Adding these all together, the total financial budget request for this plan proposal would be around $30,000. This budget encompasses staff time, resource use, acquisition, and access permissions (Nilsen et al., 2020). Impacts on Cost if the Implementation is Unsuccessful If our implementation plan remains unsuccessful,

Capella 4010 Assessment 2

Capella 4010 Assessment 2 Interview and Interdisciplinary Issue Identification Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4010 Leading in Intrprof Practice Prof. Name Date Interview Summary Central Health Clinic, a mid-sized clinic specializing in general medicine with a focus on radiology, faced challenges in communication, particularly between the Radiology Department and emergency departments. Dr. Sarah Mitchell, Head of the Radiology Department, discussed her responsibilities, including overseeing accurate and timely imaging services, leading a dedicated radiology team, and collaborating with other departments for holistic patient care. The clinic implemented a digital platform to address communication delays, facing resistance due to a learning curve. Despite organizing training sessions, stakeholder buy-in remained a challenge. Practical roadblocks, such as resistance to technological advancements, hindered interdisciplinary collaboration. Dr. Mitchell, while positive about collaboration, highlighted communication barriers and the need for structured platforms for cohesive interdisciplinary experiences. The interview employed clarifying questions and active listening to gather comprehensive insights (Matlala, 2021). Issue Identification The interview identified a significant communication delay between radiology and emergency departments, posing risks to patient health. An evidence-based interdisciplinary approach is necessary for timely interventions and enhanced healthcare delivery (Porembka et al., 2022). Change Theories To address communication challenges, Lewin’s Change Management Model, involving ‘unfreezing,’ ‘changing,’ and ‘refreezing’ phases, can be applied. This model, proven effective in healthcare communication improvement, aligns with the need for seamless interdepartmental communication (Harrison et al., 2021). The PDSA model, emphasizing continual improvement, is also suitable for dynamic healthcare settings, providing an iterative approach for ongoing adjustments (Kwok et al., 2021). Leadership Strategies ‘Facilitative Leadership’ stands out as a strategy emphasizing collaboration and active participation, crucial for addressing communication lags at Central Health Clinic. This approach, supported by research, enhances interdepartmental coordination and aligns with the clinic’s challenges (Ho et al., 2023). Collaboration Approaches Proposing “Interdisciplinary Case Discussions” as a collaborative approach involves routine meetings for professionals from different departments to discuss patient cases. This structured environment can reduce misunderstandings, ensuring a quicker diagnostic process and addressing communication barriers (Nguyen et al., 2019). References Harrison, R., Fischer, S., Walpola, R. L., Chauhan, A., Babalola, T., Mears, S., & Le-Dao, H. (2021). Where do models for change management, improvement, and implementation meet? A systematic review of the applications of change management models in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 13(13), 85–108. Ho, J. T., See, M. T. A., Tan, A. J. Q., Levett-Jones, T., Lau, T. C., Zhou, W., & Liaw, S. Y. (2023). A systematic review of healthcare professionals’ experiences of interprofessional collaboration in patient education. Patient Education and Counseling, 116, 107965. Kwok, M. M. K., Chiu, A., Chia, J., & Hansen, C. (2021). Reducing time to X-ray in emergency department ambulatory patients: A quality improvement project. BMJ Open Quality, 10(2), e000995. Capella 4010 Assessment 2 Matlala, S. (2021). Educators’ perceptions and views of problem-based learning through simulation. Curationis, 44(1). Nguyen, J., Smith, L., Hunter, J., & Harnett, J. E. (2019). Conventional and complementary medicine health care practitioners’ perspectives on interprofessional communication: A qualitative rapid review. Medicina, 55(10), 650. Porembka, J. H., Lee, R. K., Spalluto, L. B., Yee, J., Krishnaraj, A., Zaidi, S. F., & Brewington, C. (2022). Radiologists’ increasing role in population health management: AJR expert panel narrative review. American Journal of Roentgenology, 218(1), 7–18. Capella 4010 Assessment 2

Capella 4010 Assessment 1

Capella 4010 Assessment 1 Collaboration and Leadership Reflection Student Name Capella University NURS-FPX 4010 Leading in Intrprof Practice Prof. Name Date Collaboration and Leadership Reflection Video Hello everyone, my name is ———, and I am a nurse at Vila Health. Today, I will first share some reflections on the critical role of interprofessional collaboration in healthcare based on my own experiences. This will set the context for examining a recent EHR implementation at another Vila Health location. I aim to shed light on the challenges and lessons learned from this case and offer evidence-backed strategies for improving collaboration and leadership in such interdisciplinary projects. Let’s dive in. Reflection on Interdisciplinary Collaboration Experience In a previous role, I was part of an interdisciplinary team focused on reducing hospital readmissions. Our team comprised healthcare professionals, data analysts, and administrative staff. The goal was to identify patterns and root causes of readmissions and implement strategies to minimize them. The initial phases were successful because everyone was committed to the same end goal. Administrative staff facilitated meetings, data analysts produced valuable insights into readmission patterns, and healthcare providers used this data to optimize patient care plans. Early on, we observed a decrease in readmissions, signaling the effectiveness of our initial strategies. As we moved forward, it became clear that not all departments were aligned. While the data analysts quickly provided numbers, they needed to fully understand the constraints and variables that healthcare providers must consider, such as patient compliance and social determinants of health. Similarly, administrators were focused on cost reduction without fully grasping the clinical implications of budget cuts. This resulted in some strategies that looked good on paper but needed to be more practical in the healthcare setting, leading to tension within the team. In retrospect, we could have benefited from a more robust initial assessment to understand each department’s limitations and capabilities. Communication lines should have been more open, with regular touchpoints to discuss challenges and adjustments needed. The Role of Reflective Nursing Practice Reflective nursing practice would have been invaluable in this scenario. According to Grubaugh & Bernard (2022), reflective practice in nursing provides a structured framework to examine and learn from events, enhancing the quality of care and interprofessional relations. If reflective practices had been in place, we would have been better equipped to communicate the challenges we faced effectively, providing data analysts and administrators with the valuable context they needed for more informed decision-making. Falcó‐Pegueroles et al. (2020) argue that reflective practice allows healthcare practitioners to grasp the complex dynamics in their professional settings, thereby enhancing future decision-making. In our case, applying reflective practice would have likely fostered a more cohesive and efficient interdisciplinary team united in achieving our mutual goal of reducing hospital readmissions. Impact of Poor Collaboration on Resource Management Human Resource Strain In the Vila Health scenario, it became painfully clear that the lack of effective interprofessional collaboration significantly strained human resources, particularly among the nursing staff. The absence of coordinated efforts led to extended work hours, escalating stress levels, and plummeting morale. Taranu et al. (2022) expressly point out that poor collaboration can contribute to a heightened sense of job dissatisfaction, leading to increased burnout rates. This lack of cooperation and heightened stress likely exacerbated preexisting inefficiencies within the healthcare team at Vila Health. Financial Resource Drain In the Vila Health case, the EHR system’s implementation was marked by a lack of coherent planning and interprofessional teamwork, leading to financial inefficiencies. Charosaei et al. (2022) discuss how poor interprofessional collaboration often leads to redundant tasks, which unnecessarily utilize limited resources. In Vila Health, this manifested in a series of unplanned system modifications, causing delays in project completion and increased costs that could have otherwise been avoided. Patient Care Compromised The quality of patient care was not spared in this scenario. The diversion of nursing staff towards non-clinical tasks, such as troubleshooting the new EHR system seriously impacted the time they could dedicate to patients. Watson et al. (2020) have shown that poor team collaboration has a cascading effect on healthcare outcomes, often leading to reduced quality of care. In the Vila Health case, this was evident as overwhelmed nurses could not provide the level of attention and care that patients needed, potentially compromising health outcomes. Best-Practice Leadership Strategies for Interdisciplinary Collaboration Transformational Leadership for a More Cohesive Team To improve the team’s overall effectiveness and collaboration, transformational leadership is a well-regarded strategy supported by Collins et al. (2020). This leadership style goes beyond simple management; it aims to inspire team members by setting a compelling vision and encouraging active participation in planning and execution. A transformational leadership approach could have mitigated some rollout challenges in Vila Health and the EHR system. If this strategy were applied, the team members would have been more actively involved in the planning stages, reducing stress, errors, and inefficiencies during the EHR system’s implementation. Situational Leadership for Customized Team Management Another promising strategy that could significantly improve the team’s effectiveness is Situational Leadership, as proposed by Balasubramanian & Fernandes (2022). This leadership model advocates for a tailored approach considering each team member’s unique abilities, experience levels, and needs. In the Vila Health scenario, a leader adopting situational leadership could have conducted a needs analysis for the departments involved—nursing, IT, and administration. Such an approach would facilitate better allocation of tasks, and the leader could adapt their style to suit the specific needs and challenges facing each team, thereby potentially preventing many of the issues that arose during the EHR system implementation. By integrating these best-practice leadership strategies into our approach, we could substantially improve our interdisciplinary team’s ability to meet its goals, manage resources more efficiently, and, most importantly, deliver improved patient care. Best-Practice Strategies for Effective Interprofessional Collaboration Drawing from my own experience and the insights offered by Powers et al. (2022), the Team-Based Care model stands out as an essential strategy for enhancing interdisciplinary collaboration. This model strongly advocates for clearly defined roles, shared objectives, and

Capella 4000 Assessment 4

Capella 4000 Assessment 4 Analyzing a Current Health Care Issue Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue In the intricate realm of healthcare, ensuring patient safety and delivering optimal care are paramount. An area that demands immediate attention and reform is medication errors, given their potential for severe consequences. Such errors, born out of oversights during medication prescription, dispensing, and administration, can lead to undesirable outcomes, tarnishing the trust in healthcare systems and affecting patients’ overall well-being. This examination delves into the intricacies of medication errors, utilizing scholarly information to shed light on its causes, consequences, and potential solutions. Using Scholarly Information to Understand a Health Care Problem Medication errors in hospitals and clinics have become a pressing healthcare issue. These errors encompass mistakes made while prescribing, dispensing, and administering medications. The detrimental implications of such errors are vast and varied, often resulting in harmful consequences for patients. Notably, these mishaps have earned a reputation as significant threats to patient safety. The underlying causes of medication errors are multifaceted. Among these, miscommunication among healthcare professionals stands out as a primary culprit. This is compounded by ambiguous medication names, the utilization of confusing medical abbreviations, and more precise directions. Additionally, implementing poor procedures or techniques can further exacerbate the problem. To delve deeper into this issue, I referred to several scholarly articles that comprehensively address the topic. Marufu et al. (2021) elaborated on the significant consequences of medication errors, shedding light on various preventive strategies. Roy et al. (2023) underscored the pivotal role of miscommunication among health professionals, emphasizing that such communication breakdowns significantly contribute to these errors. Additionally, Bourne et al. (2022) critically assessed the existing medication safety protocols, investigating their efficacy in mitigating medication errors. It is paramount to highlight that the credibility and relevance of the articles mentioned above are indisputable. Each comes from renowned medical journals, ensuring their authenticity and the value they bring. Collectively, they offer invaluable insights into the intricacies of medication errors, their origins, and potential prevention strategies. Analysis of the Problem Medication errors transpire predominantly within the confines of hospitals and clinics. These settings, where medications are prescribed and administered, become crucial zones where the risk is inherently magnified. To me, the magnitude of this problem hits close to home. As a stakeholder in the healthcare domain, our primary objective revolves around patient safety and ensuring optimal health outcomes. A misstep, like a medication error, is not merely an operational glitch; it has profound repercussions. It can precipitate a series of adverse medical events, prolong hospital stays, augment healthcare costs, and, tragically, in some instances, lead to irreversible health consequences or fatalities (Bourne et al., 2022). Several demographics are at the receiving end of these medication blunders. At the forefront are patients, who bear the direct brunt of these errors. However, the ripple effects extend to healthcare providers, entangling them in legal and ethical conundrums. Pharmacists, often the last line of defense against such errors, are also scrutinized. Furthermore, hospital administrations confront reputational damages and potential financial liabilities. To encapsulate the severity of the issue, consider these real-life scenarios: Potential Solutions Digital Prescription and Medication Tracking System A paramount solution that emerges in the context of medication errors is the transition from traditional methods of prescription and administration to a comprehensive digital prescription and medication tracking system. The genesis of this solution is intertwined with specific prerequisites. The initial phase requires a robust, secure, and user-friendly digital platform. Post this acquisition, an intricate phase of training and orientation beckons, ensuring that every healthcare professional, from prescribers to pharmacists, is adept at navigating this system. Additionally, regular audits would be indispensable to uphold the system’s integrity and ensure its continued efficacy. These audits would scrutinize the system’s efficiency, identify potential loopholes, and recommend necessary enhancements (Lindén-Lahti et al., 2022). Advantages encompass precision in tracking, a significant downturn in human-induced errors, and real-time notifications about potential drug interactions or allergies. Drawbacks include the substantial initial financial outlay required, resistance to technological change from seasoned professionals, and potential cyber threats or system downtimes (Holmgren et al., 2020). Implementation of Standardized Protocols and Continuous Education Another viable solution lies in establishing and enforcing standardized medication administration protocols and ongoing training for all healthcare professionals involved in the medication process. This approach focuses on unifying the methods, nomenclature, and procedures used across different departments and roles. Continuous education and periodic refresher courses would keep all staff updated on best practices. At the same time, simulations and drills would enhance preparedness, allowing for swift corrective action during real-life medication error events (Haleem et al., 2022). This solution fosters a culture of continual learning and improvement, mitigating risks stemming from outdated knowledge or techniques. It also offers flexibility to be tailored to specific institutions and can be combined with other solutions for compounded benefits. Standardizing across diverse departments and staff can be challenging, especially in large healthcare setups. There is also the need for ongoing investment in training, both in terms of time and resources. Neglecting the issue of medication errors can result in heightened patient harm or fatalities, leading to lawsuits, financial strains, and diminished public trust in healthcare institutions (Nagappa & Naik, 2022). Ethical Implication of Proposed Solutions To implement this digital system, robust technological infrastructure, comprehensive training for healthcare professionals, and rigorous cybersecurity measures are essential to ensure patient data privacy and protection (Haleem et al., 2022). Delving into the ethical dimensions, the principle of beneficence resonates with the system’s intent to bolster patient safety. At the same time, nonmaleficence urges us to be circumspect, ensuring this digital transition does not inadvertently engender new challenges. Autonomy demands clarity for patients regarding medication data management in this digital paradigm, ensuring they grant informed consent. The principle of justice, meanwhile, emphasizes that this system must offer equitable access to all without bias towards any socioeconomic group (Bandari, 2023). For the implementation of standardized

Capella 4000 Assessment 3

Capella 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Ethical Principles Healthcare organizations worldwide encounter various problems which must be addressed using ethical principles. These issues are known as ethical dilemmas in healthcare settings. To further understand, ethical dilemmas are described as those circumstances which are developed because of a conflict between two or more moral values and hence require an ethical committee to propose solutions (Giannetta et al., 2021). This article is focused on an ethical case study from Capella University’s Library.  The Ethical Case Study – To Vaccinate, or Not?  This ethical case study is about a child, Anna, who was born 5 days ago at a Community Hospital. The Smiths, Anna’s parents, decided after her birth to let her grow naturally without any foreign interventions which also included childhood immunizations. They were very sure about this as they decided after researching online by reading mommy blogs that vaccinations have several risks for children as compared to benefits. They provided the example of autism cases which are increasing because of childhood vaccines. All of their concerns were carefully heard by Dr. Kerr. She was Anna’s pediatrician and wanted her parents to allow vaccinate Anna. Dr. Kerr succinctly explained her point using various literature advice. She accepted the fact that vaccines have received various controversies in recent times, however, they have saved millions of lives as well. She provided the example of decreased incidences of Haemophilus influenzae type b and measles which are life-threatening infectious diseases in children. Moreover, she talked about autism disorder which was previously said to be caused by Thimerosal but recent studies deny this opinion. Dr. Kerr further established her points by sharing a reporting system that has been developed by governmental bodies to report adverse events from vaccines. This reporting system tends to aware governmental organizations about vaccines so that quality can be improved. To conclude her point, she tried to develop insight for Smiths regarding communal good by explaining Herd Immunity. After all the discussion, Dr. Kerr was sure that she will receive a positive response from the parents but the situation remained the same and became a moral issue for the doctor.  Assessment of Facts from the Case Study  The conclusion of the presented case study is that it is an ethical dilemma for Dr. Kerr to choose between medical recommendations and the wish of Anna’s parents. Childhood immunizations have several controversies and such cases are very common in healthcare settings where parents are reluctant to vaccinate their children and healthcare research is opposite to their opinions. Some of the facts from the case study that can be analyzed are parental refusal, the concept of detrimental effects of vaccines which include online blogs providing unreliable information, medical research about positive effects, and the concept of communal good.   Parental Refusal As mentioned in the case study, the Smiths were not in favor of vaccinating Anna and hence refused it. Literature supports this point by stating that in various parts of the world, parental refusal has been common in terms of vaccinating children. World Health Organization states that every year around 2-3 million children die because of being unvaccinated and one of the common reasons is parental perception (Saeed & Hashmi, 2021). Another source mentions that hesitancy by parents has been a major reason for various outbreaks of diseases that can be prevented by immunizations (Fernández-Basanta et al., 2021).  Harmful Effects of Vaccines According to the literature, the component used in childhood vaccines – thimerosal is considered safe and effective by the World Health Organization. Moreover, various peer-reviewed studies also indicate a “no risk” of autism from vaccines that have thimerosal. Hence, there is no evidence of a link between autism disease and childhood vaccinations (Gabis et al., 2022). As shared in the case scenario, online resources like blogs and videos on social media channels from people who are against vaccinations can be unreliable for parents. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control identified that digital media especially social apps and websites are primarily affecting vaccine reluctance in parents because they are easily captured by the myths and rumors which are shared online (Garett & Young, 2021).  Positive Effects of Vaccines  In the case study, Dr. Kerr elaborated on the benefits of vaccines. She focused on two infectious diseases (measles and Haemophilus influenzae). A research study identifies that globally around 66% of measles cases decrease from the year 2000-2018. The major reason behind this is routine vaccination that prevents measles disease (Gastañaduy et al., 2021). Talbird and colleagues (2022), mentioned in their study that vaccinations have proved to decrease the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type B by 80% (Talbird et al., 2022).  Communal Good – Herd Immunity Another fact from the case study that Dr. Kerr mentioned about is herd immunity. It is defined as immunizing healthy individuals so that they can save immunocompromised people from infectious diseases (Ashby & Best, 2021). A study provides evidence that vaccines are ethically implied on healthy children so that other children in the community who are contraindicated from vaccines can be benefitted as well. This is called the “common good” (Rus & Goselj, 2021). The reasons for using these resources are a) they explain vaccine reluctance in detail, b) they provide researched evidence against the unreliable resources available online, c) explicitly support the importance of vaccines to prevent diseases, and d) explain the concept of herd immunity as a common good.   Communication Approaches and their Effectiveness  The communication approaches present in the case study are; effective patient/family education for informed decisions and a therapeutic approach to rapport building. In healthcare settings, informed decision-making is highly important. It is defined as a two-way communication between the patient/family and healthcare provider about the advantages, hazards, and alternatives of medical treatment so that they make decisions with informed choices (Paterick et al., 2020). Patient/family education is one of the ways to achieve informed communication likewise in the case study where Dr.

Capella 4000 Assessment 2

Capella 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Research Skills Healthcare systems worldwide face numerous challenges due to various obstacles that must be addressed to prevent adverse health consequences. One significant barrier to healthcare is limited accessibility, a topic of interest because ensuring adequate access for every individual is a crucial goal. Healthcare providers should collaborate with governmental bodies and policymakers to achieve positive outcomes. During my professional journey, visiting low-economic communities revealed a lack of primary care facilities, few underqualified healthcare professionals, and, consequently, increased vulnerability to poor health outcomes. Applying Peer-Reviewed Articles to Limited Healthcare Access Health is vital for a comprehensive life, and healthcare access is essential to achieve this. The World Health Organization recognizes healthcare as a basic human right, emphasizing the responsibility to provide citizens with their health rights (Zegeye et al., 2021). Inadequate healthcare access is influenced by factors such as geographical locations, provider shortages, commuting issues, and lack of awareness, leading to poor health outcomes and economic burdens (Dawkins et al., 2021). The inclusion of recent peer-reviewed articles in this analysis is crucial for their explicit explanations of limited healthcare access, identifying barriers, and proposing effective strategies. These articles were sourced from reputable databases such as Capella University’s Library, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect. Utilizing relevant keywords facilitated the research process. Assessing Credibility and Relevance of Resources The CRAAP test, assessing Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose, is employed to determine the credibility of resources (Lewis, 2018). Articles included in the annotated bibliography meet these criteria, with emphasis on relevance. Articles were selected based on their publication within the last five years, authorship by healthcare professionals, and alignment with the topic of limited healthcare access. Annotated Bibliography Brusnahan, A., Carrasco-Tenezaca, M., Bates, B. R., Roche, R., & Grijalva, M. J. (2022). Identifying health care access barriers in southern rural Ecuador. International Journal for Equity in Health, 21(1). This article introduces the Health Care Assess Barrier (HCAB) Model, aiming to identify barriers to healthcare access in southern rural Ecuador. The HCAB model categorizes barriers into financial, structural, and cognitive themes, providing insights for effective interventions such as mobile clinics/primary care. Capella 4000 Assessment 2 The article’s credibility is affirmed through adherence to the CRAAP criteria, including recent publication, relevance to the research topic, authorship by healthcare professionals, accurate information, and a clear purpose. Coombs, N. C., Campbell, D. G., & Caringi, J. (2022). A qualitative study of rural healthcare providers’ views of social, cultural, and programmatic barriers to healthcare access. BMC Health Services Research, 22(1). This qualitative study explores the views of 12 rural healthcare providers in the U.S., identifying barriers such as limited healthcare providers, cultural differences, and resource unavailability. The article underscores the need for careful monitoring of all aspects to improve health outcomes in rural populations. The article is relevant, published in 2022, authored by healthcare professionals, and aligns with the focus on limited healthcare access. George, M. S., Davey, R., Mohanty, I., & Upton, P. (2020). “Everything is provided free, but they are still hesitant to access healthcare services”: Why does the indigenous community in Attapadi, Kerala continue to experience poor access to healthcare? International Journal for Equity in Health, 19(1). This article examines poor healthcare access in Attapadi, Kerala, despite free healthcare services. It emphasizes the importance of culturally sensitive interventions involving active community participation. The article’s relevance lies in its current publication date, alignment with global healthcare issues, and insightful purpose. Learnings from this Assessment This assessment highlights the importance of evidence-based research to address healthcare issues effectively. Evaluating resource credibility using the CRAAP test ensures reliable and relevant information for developing quality plans. Studying various articles on limited healthcare access enhances knowledge and emphasizes the need to identify barriers for positive health outcomes, informing future community practices. References Dawkins, B., Renwick, C., Ensor, T., Shinkins, B., Jayne, D., & Meads, D. (2021). What factors affect patients’ ability to access healthcare? An overview of systematic reviews. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 26(10), 1177–1188. Zegeye, B., El-Khatib, Z., Ameyaw, E. K., Seidu, A.-A., Ahinkorah, B. O., Keetile, M., & Yaya, S. (2021). Breaking barriers to healthcare access: A multilevel analysis of individual- and community-level factors affecting women’s access to healthcare services in Benin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2), 750. Capella 4000 Assessment 2

Capella 4000 Assessment 1: Applying Ethical Principles

Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Academic Honesty Pledge I hereby pledge that all work completed for this course, as well as for any other courses, will be exclusively and entirely my own. I affirm that I will act as the sole author of my work, ensuring that the words, sentences, and paragraphs presented are of my own creation, unless explicitly noted through direct quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing of another individual’s work. It is understood that utilizing any portion of a peer’s discussion post without appropriate citation constitutes plagiarism. I am aware that duplicating a peer’s discussion post as a model and making minimal word modifications also constitutes plagiarism. I commit to promptly notifying my instructor in the event that another learner misrepresents my work or the work of others. I recognize the shared responsibility we all bear in upholding the integrity of the Capella degree we strive to attain. When directly quoting someone, I will use quotation marks, provide contextual information, and format the quote in accordance with APA guidelines. This includes both in-paragraph citations with page numbers and a complete reference citation at the end. In cases of paraphrasing or summarizing from external sources, I will appropriately cite the material within the text and include a reference at the conclusion of my work. I will employ language distinct from the original source and alter the fundamental sentence structure. I commit to reviewing the following resources on academic honesty: I am cognizant that any utilization of another person’s work in a manner inconsistent with the aforementioned statements constitutes plagiarism—a severe breach of academic integrity as per Capella University’s policies. In the event of an instructor discovering an act of academic dishonesty, I acknowledge that the instructor will: Should any questions arise regarding this pledge, I will seek clarification from my instructor before affixing my full name below. By entering my full name, I affirm my understanding and commitment to adhere to all the aforementioned rules, aligning with Capella University’s academic policies, from this day forward. Capella 4000 Assessment 1

NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 3 Annotated Bibliography on Technology in Nursing

Student Name Capella University NURS4040 Managing Health Information and Technology Prof. Name Date Technology in Healthcare The role of technology in healthcare has shaped our views about patient care, healthcare management, innovation, and quality of care. The main goal of technological advancements is to maintain and enhance current practices, minimize the workload of healthcare providers, and improve the quality of care by decreasing human errors. Electronic Medication Administration (EMAR) with Bar-code medication administration (BCMA) is one of the healthcare technology which is beneficial for improving healthcare quality. I have chosen this technology because of its relation to my primary responsibility as a nurse – administering medications. EMAR with barcoding is useful in my organization as it will help me and my colleagues for effective management of medications, reduction of workload, and improvement in our meditation practices.  NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 3 Annotated Bibliography on Technology in Nursing Nurses are primarily responsible for medication administration on which they spent about 40% of their shift time (Wondmieneh et al., 2020). Thus, it is essential to have impactful technological advancements so that effective care is provided and nurses are relieved of their burden as well. Data from a study reveals that around 35% of incidences are near-miss for medication errors while 65% are actual errors reported in the year 2016. The introduction of EMAR with BCMA was identified to be the best intervention for medication safety (Naidu & Alicia, 2019).  The databases I used to identify the sources for this annotated bibliography are Google Scholar, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, and CINAHL Library. The search terms which I utilized on these databases are; “What is EMAR?”, “What is BCMA?”, “Impact of technology of medication practices”, “safe medication administration technology”, “Impact of EMAR and BCMA on patients’ safety”, “Quality care through technology”, “Interdisciplinary team and medication technologies”, and “importance for healthcare professionals”.  Annotated Bibliography Naidu, M., & Alicia, Y. L. (2019). Impact of bar-code medication administration and electronic medication administration record system in clinical practice for an effective medication administration process. Health, 11(05), 511–526.  This annotated literature review by authors focused on finding outcomes of using BCMA and EMAR, clinical practices, and hospital policies that may impact nurses for administering medications. The authors concluded that to improve medication practices and reduce medication errors, the use of electronic medication administration and barcoding technology is recommended in various literature. This article describes the impacts of EMAR and BCMA on Patients’ Safety and Quality Care According to the article, EMARs are effective if used along with BCMA which helps in reducing medication errors (misunderstood orders, delayed administration, or wrong administration). The implementation of the BCMA system reduces these errors, consequently reducing costs associated with these errors which ultimately helps in improving patients’ safety. Improved efficiency of medication administration and better patient outcomes results in effective healthcare practices. This benefits an organization as a whole to grow in this advancing healthcare world because of the quality healthcare that they provide.  Nursing Practices and Interdisciplinary Team   This article is relevant for nursing practices as it helps nurses to enhance their knowledge, improve their practices and provide quality care to patients. Moreover, it is relevant for the interdisciplinary team because to bring an effective change in the organization team members need to work together and fulfill their assigned duties which will help the organization embrace the change and gain a reputation. Leaders should play an effective leadership role for this purpose.  This resource is useful for healthcare practitioners as it provides a comprehensive review of literature that states the positives and challenges of these technologies as well as provides strategies to overcome the challenges.  Macias, M., Bernabeu-Andreu, F., Arribas, I., Navarro, F., & Baldominos, G. (2018). Impact of a barcode medication administration system on patient safety. Oncology Nursing Forum, 45(1).  NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 3 Annotated Bibliography on Technology in Nursing This article conducted a pre/post-intervention study that focuses on the impact of barcode medication administration in the oncology unit. It is identified by research that most medication administration errors (MAEs) occur while administering chemotherapy agents (0.04%- 18.8%). This study recommends BCMA because it is useful for nurses to adequately follow the five rights of medication (right patient, drug, dose, route, and time). This study shows that BCMA was effective in reducing various medication errors in the hospital setting due to effective verification of patient and the drugs however, there is still a need to improve the technicalities of the system so that errors with greater risks can be detected as well.  Patients’ Safety and Quality Care  Since cancers are already harmful to patients, improving medication safety in these patients can help in enhancing patients’ safety. Moreover, the study identifies that implementation of BCMA does not increase their length of stay which ultimately improves patients’ safety from other hospital-acquired infections. The decrease in the incidences of MAEs in a hospital is evidence that quality care is provided. Thus, it is recommended in this article to introduce electronic barcode medication administration systems.  Nursing Practices and Interdisciplinary Team  The BCMA system is useful for nurses as it helps them to check the five rights of medication without manually assessing it. Moreover, barcoding systems improve chemotherapy administration which is an important part of nursing practices and helps nurses to give extra time to other tasks as well. The article also highlights the importance of interprofessional team which plays a significant role in the implementation and sustainability of this technology through statistical, financial, educational, and leadership support.  Health practitioners should read this source as it gives an insightful review of various literature that indicates the importance of barcoding systems in medication administration specifically for cancer patients. The information provided in the article helps healthcare workers to overcome organizational factors like higher incidences of MAEs which will be reduced by the barcode system in a healthcare setting.  Moore, E. C., Tolley, C. L., Bates, D. W., & Slight, S. P. (2020). A systematic review of the impact of Health Information Technology on Nurses’ Time. Journal of the American

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Research skills  Medication errors can be described as a failure in the medication management process. It can be due to improper prescription, administration, or inaccurate medication records that can potentially damage the patient, resulting in poor health outcomes (Mosisa et al., 2022). The growing incidences of medication errors have developed my interest into this topic. As a healthcare provider, I must prioritize initiatives to prevent these errors in my nursing practice. In the professional context, I have observed various medication errors in my organization where healthcare providers administered incorrect medication, misread prescriptions, and neglected possible drug interactions, leading to severe patient complications. Thus, it is essential to tackle the underlying causes and put strong protections in place to reduce medication errors and ensure patient safety. Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Relevant to Medication Errors Many peer-reviewed journal articles are available on different databases that address medication errors and the potential strategies to minimize them. The selected articles for annotated bibliography are gathered from various databases, including the Capella University Library and outside resources like BioMed Central, Science Direct, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PubMed. To increase the search efficiency of desired articles, I used appropriate keywords like “medication errors”, “medication safety”, and “medication administration”. The selected papers for annotated bibliography are recently published and relevant to the topic of interest as they present the information and knowledge with the most recent developments for reducing medication errors in healthcare settings.  Assessing the Credibility and Resources of Relevance  Evaluating the credibility and relevance of resources is a crucial step in any research process. The CRAAP criteria are applied to evaluate the value and dependability of the sources, which stands for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). The credibility of resources can be ensured by; the articles being published within five years, the source responding explicitly to our research topic of medication errors, the authors and journal is credentialed, previous articles supporting their findings, and the purpose supports the objectives of the related topic of medication error. The reason for selecting reliable, evidence-based sources in the annotated bibliography on medication error is that these sources collectively offer comprehensive insights into the widespread issue of medication errors in pediatric settings. They also address the prevalence of errors in outpatient and home settings with emphasis on the importance of dosage accuracy, communication, and caregiver education. Lastly, these resources also highlight the role of advanced technologies like CDSS and eMAR systems in enhancing medication safety. Annotated Bibliography Stipp, M. M., Deng, H., Kong, K., Moore, S., Hickman, R. L., & Nanji, K. C. (2022). Medication safety in the perioperative setting: A comparison of methods for detecting medication errors and adverse medication events. Medicine, 101(44), e31432.   This research study investigates medication errors (MEs) with a focus on the differences between direct observation and self-reporting approaches for identifying these incidents. It was revealed in this study that there are several types of MEs, including labeling errors, incorrect doses, and omission errors. The study underlines the need for various strategies to identify and manage drug errors in perioperative care and advises enhancing event reporting templates. It was concluded that pharmacy-prepared meds and barcode-assisted administration could handle the difficulties of managing drugs in a fast-paced surgical environment to improve patient safety. The rationale to add this article is it is crucial to acknowledge the gaps in capturing perioperative medication incidents through direct observation versus self-reporting. Understanding these differences is vital for refining reporting strategies and improving medication safety in perioperative settings.  Shahzeydi, A., Farzi, S., Tarrahi, M. J., & Babaei, S. (2023). Exploring internship nursing students’ experiences regarding the effect of supervision model implementation on medication safety: A descriptive qualitative study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 12(1), 266.  NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills This paper disclosed the impact of implementing a clinical supervision model on medication safety among nursing students. Medication errors are a significant concern in healthcare, and the article aims to help students decrease this area. The study included 15 nursing students and used qualitative approaches to acquire information about their experiences. Major outcomes of the clinical supervision approach include improved drug safety competence, increased trust, and reduced student stress. The research emphasizes the significance of competent clinical supervision in improving medication safety and students’ clinical abilities. This research article is added because it is essential to emphasize the effectiveness of the clinical supervision model in enhancing medication safety skills among nursing internship students. The results of this study highlight the model’s impact on medication administration principles, error reduction, accurate calculations, and overall improvement in clinical performance through constructive feedback. Liang, M. Q., Thibault, M., Jouvet, P., Lebel, D., Schuster, T., Moreault, M.-P., & Motulsky, A. (2023). Improving medication safety in a pediatric hospital: A mixed-methods evaluation of a newly implemented computerized provider order entry system. BMJ Health & Care Informatics, 30(1), e100622.   This article advocates the adoption of a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system in a hospital context, including its adoption for pediatric prescribing that will result in major changes in resolving medication errors. Most errors occurred during the nurse-administering step, emphasizing the need for better safety precautions, particularly in pediatric settings. Nurses and pharmacy technicians benefited from this activity, which improved efficiency and reduced medication errors. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills In hospital settings, using a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) enhances the management of allergies and drug interactions, decreasing medication errors. The study was included here because it emphasizes the significance of enhancing electronic medication administration (eMAR) in mitigating medication errors. Adopting this aligns with the need for improved healthcare technology for patient safety. It was recommended in this study to develop proactive event reporting systems, and system-based suggestions highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach to error prevention and reporting. Chew, C.-C., HSS, A.-S., Chan, H.-K., & Hassali, M. A. (2019). Medication safety at home: A qualitative study on caregivers of chronically ill children in Malaysia. Hospital Pharmacy, 55(6), 001857871985171.