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NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Student Name

Capella University

NURS4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health

Prof. Name

Date

Health Promotion Plan

This health promotion plan is developed for public health specialists to consider cessation of tobacco use, especially in adolescents as an important health concern. A study mentions that the use of tobacco is a leading cause of death in the U.S. Approximately 1600 youth (12-17 years old), smoke a cigarette in a day which predicts that about 5.6 million adolescents will die prematurely due to chronic smoking diseases (Owens et al., 2020). Tobacco use does not only mean smoking but vaping e-cigarettes, the use of hookah and chewing tobacco is also considered a part of it. These are commonly observed in adolescents due to peer pressure and growing technology.

These practices impose various health problems like vaping e-cigarettes can lead to several respiratory and cardiovascular problems (Oriakhi, 2020), hookah smoking is associated with respiratory problems which may further lead to cancer development in the body (Aghdam et al., 2021), and chewing tobacco can lead to gingivitis, gums bleeding, staining and damaging teeth, oral mucosal lesions, and can complicate into oral cancers (Nazir et al., 2019). These tobacco uses not only affect the active users but also spread harmful ingredients through the smoke to other people in the vicinity, this is called passive smoking which according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is more dangerous than active use of tobacco.

These statistics and the dangerous effects of tobacco use are the assumptions that there is a need for a health promotion plan for youth and adolescents in the communities so that effective interventions are undertaken to prevent their health and improve their lifestyle. 

Importance of Health Promotion Related to Tobacco Use in Adolescents

The population that is usually affected by tobacco use has this demographic data; Age (11-19 years adolescents and 20-26 years young adults), gender (any gender can be affected by males are more likely to get involved), regardless of ethnicity and race, education (mostly middle school or high school students), and belong to low socio-economic status (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). Various social and environmental factors influence the use of tobacco in this population, for example, excessive use of media and the portrayal of tobacco use in films and series have been influential for these individuals.

With growing technology, youth is addicted to various media channels and have also developed celebrity ideals. They are prone to copy their ideals in every possible way which also includes the use of cigars, hookah, and other tobacco-added products (Donaldson et al., 2022). Another important aspect is social and environmental factors which include imitating the behavior of parents or relatives and pressure from peers who are involved in smoking. Parents and relatives who are involved in such acts do not advocate the need to stop their children from taking these behaviors hence youth gets influenced by parental behaviors which leads to harmful effects in later life. Peer pressure is very common in this group of individuals where every other colleague is involved in tobacco use (Polanska et al., 2022; Vrinten et al., 2022).

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

The reasons tobacco cessation is an important health promotion concern for adolescents are: 1) the growing number of youth entering into these practices, and 2) harmful effects on health. The number of youth involved in the use of tobacco is evident from the statistics provided by the CDC which reveals that about 9 out of 10 people who are involved in tobacco smoking daily, start this activity by the age of 18 years which accounts for 99% of the people trying smoking for the first time by the age of 26 years. More facts reveal that in the year 2022, 14.1% of high school children reported having used e-cigarettes while 1.5% and 1.4% reported the use of hookah and nicotine pouches respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). 

Harmful health effects of tobacco account for another reason why this health promotional plan is important. The component present in cigarettes called nicotine is harmful to the development of the brain and can impair cognitive functions which decreases mental competence in these young adults (Nazir et al., 2019). Other significant problems are respiratory illnesses which include asthma, shortness of breath due to lowered stamina and oxygen depletion during physical activities, and in later phases of life can lead to heart diseases and cancers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.; Zammit et al., 2022).

Furthermore, it is identified that smoking is connected with bronchitis, tuberculosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and oral health problems, which include inflammation of the gum, bleeding, oral malodor, caries in teeth, periodontal disease, hypersensitivity, and mouth cancers (Nazir et al., 2019). Thus, it is essential to develop a health promotional plan for the concerned population so that their health risks are reduced and their quality of life is improved.

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

This health promotion plan includes educating the targeted population related to the health risks of tobacco using appropriate educational resources and providing them with applicable cessation methods. Moreover, social and environmental predictors should be evaluated before initiating a smoking cessation plan to prevent relapse and ensure effective rehabilitation (Vallata et al., 2021). 

Development of Health Goals with the Participants

The hypothetical population of this health promotion plan includes the students from the Virginia District high school who belongs to the age group 20-25 years.  Most of them are full-time students while some are part-time earners too who usually work at gas stations, fast food chains, and in local shops as cleaners, cashiers, and salespersons. These students were grouped together for educational sessions.

To successfully implement the health promotion plan, SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound) goals are developed together with the participants so that they are actively involved in promoting their health and are equally accountable for inappropriate behaviors in the process. Effective goal setting is considered an effective strategy in healthcare to achieve desired outcomes and change health behaviors in a structured manner (Sundel & Sundel, 2018). Some of the goals developed with the participants are:

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan
  • Goal # 1: Identification of three causes (measurable) that influence the use of (specific) tobacco products (every participant will specifically consider the product they use) and mention only two basic methods to avoid its use (realistic and achievable) by the end of the group discussion (realistic and time-bound). 
  • Goal # 2: Write down five barriers related to tobacco quitting (specific and measurable) and how three steps to overcome these barriers (realistic and achievable) within two days before the next educational session (time-bound). 
  • Goal # 3: Asking for parents’ help within the week by explaining the problem (specific, time-bound) and probing them to advise on two easy methods (realistic and measurable) of tobacco cessation and bringing them along in counseling sessions (realistic and achievable) so that they get to learn about parental support in this matter. 

Conclusion

Tobacco-containing products are harmful to every individual regardless of age, sex, and other socio-economic factors. However, adolescents and young adults are at high risk for developing this habit due to various social and environmental factors. They are prone to developing several health problems which at later ages can cause chronic diseases and may lead to mortality. It is essential to carry out health promotional programs for these individuals and their parents/guardians to establish SMART goals which will lead to improved health outcomes through tobacco cessation and eventually improves their quality of life. Public health specialists, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare providers play an important role to eradicate this health concern from the targeted population and achieve desired health outcomes.

References

Aghdam, F. B., Alizadeh, N., Nadrian, H., Augner, C., & Mohammadpoorasl, A. (2021). Effects of a multi-level intervention on hookah smoking frequency and duration among Iranian adolescents and adults: An application of the socio-ecological model. BMC Public Health21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10219-8 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Youth and tobacco use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Smoking and youth – Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/50th-anniversary/pdfs/fs_smoking_youth_508.pdf 

Donaldson, S. I., Dormanesh, A., Perez, C., Majmundar, A., & Allem, J.-P. (2022). Association between exposure to tobacco content on social media and tobacco use. JAMA Pediatrics176(9), 878. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2223  

Nazir, M. A., Al-Ansari, A., Abbasi, N., & Almas, K. (2019). The global prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents and its adverse oral health consequences. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences7(21), 3659–3666. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.542 

Oriakhi, M. (2020). Vaping: An emerging health hazard. Cureus. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7421 

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Curry, S. J., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C.-W., & Wong, J. B. (2020). Primary care interventions for prevention and cessation of tobacco use in children and adolescents. JAMA323(16), 1590. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4679 

Polanska, K., Znyk, M., & Kaleta, D. (2022). Susceptibility to tobacco use and associated factors among youth in five Central and Eastern European countries. BMC Public Health22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-12493-6 

Sundel, M., & Sundel, S. S. (2018). Goal setting, intervention planning, implementation, and evaluation. Behavior Change in the Human Services: Behavioral and Cognitive Principles and Applications, 259–289. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506352671.n15 

Vallata, A., O’Loughlin, J., Cengelli, S., & Alla, F. (2021). Predictors of cigarette smoking cessation in adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Adolescent Health68(4), 649–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.09.025  

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Vrinten, C., Parnham, J. C., Filippidis, F. T., Hopkinson, N. S., & Laverty, A. A. (2022). Risk factors for adolescent smoking uptake – analysis of prospective data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.05.26.22275632 

Zammit, N., Maatoug, J., Ghammam, R., Fredj, S. B., Dhouib, W., Ayouni, I., Maatouk, A., Belgacem, W. B., Ouertani, M., & Ghannem, H. (2022). Surveillance of tobacco use among young adolescents: Trends and predictors across three years in Sousse, Tunisia. BMC Public Health22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14416-x 

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