BSN Writing Services

BSN Writing Services

Call Us

+1-(612) 234-7670

Our Email

Capella 4030 Assessment 2

Capella 4030 Assessment 2 Determining the Credibility of Evidence and Resources

Student Name

Capella University

NURS-FPX 4030 Making Evidence-Based Decisions

Prof. Name


Diabetes Mellitus and Evidence-based Practice

There is a pool of information available in online databases which includes potential wastes and unreliable sources too. Evidence-based research (EBR) ensures that the information gathered is valuable and meaningful so that the practices aren’t affected negatively, especially in healthcare systems (Robinson et al., 2021). The incorporation of EBR is called evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice is critical in improving patients’ safety and providing quality healthcare to patients (Li et al., 2019). Healthcare systems are continuously evolving which develops a need for improving the practices of healthcare professionals for better patient outcomes. This paper is focused on the importance of evidence-based practices for patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). 

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that is portrayed as hyperglycemic states. The raised blood sugar levels are due to impairment in insulin production and/or lack of insulin performance within the human body. There are mainly two types of diabetes – type I and type II. Type I is a result of insulin deficiency in the body thus, it is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. On the other hand, type II diabetes is characterized by enough insulin production however body cells do not respond to the insulin’s function. This phenomenon is called insulin resistance (Punthakee et al., 2018). 

Capella 4030 Assessment 2

Diabetes is a leading cause of mortality in populations worldwide. It is approximated that 451 million people had been diagnosed with diabetes in the year 2017 and the number is expected to rise to 693 million by 2045. Additionally, it is predicted that diabetic patients are more likely to end up with several chronic and metabolic conditions like cardiovascular problems and kidney problems (Shi et al., 2022). A study based on the identification of mortality rate due to diabetes in 20-79-year-old adults showed that around 4.2 million deaths in this age group are contributed by diabetes mellitus. An estimated 11.3% of deaths occurred globally where only 6.8% is in Africa whereas the Middle East and North Africa had the highest rate of 16.2%. (Saeedi et al., 2020). 

The growing prevalence of diabetes and the leading risk of mortality advocates the need for evidence-based practice in the treatment and management of chronic conditions. The purpose of evidence-based practices is to ensure that consumers are provided with effective care using successful strategies to minimize the global burden, enhance patient outcomes, and improve the quality of care (Abu-Baker et al., 2021). 

Criteria to Analyze the Credibility of the Resources

Evidence-based practices are based on evidence-based research, which is the reason it is essential to sort the credible and relevant resources from the pool of information available online. One of the criteria established for the identification of the credibility of the resources is the CRAAP test, which is an acronym for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). This five-letter test is used to analyze if the resource is up-to-date with the time, if it is relevant in terms of the topic being researched, if is it authorized by credible writers and journals, whether the claims are well-supported with scholarly evidence, and if the purpose of the study is significant and clear for the audience. 

Let us take the example of the resource below to better understand the CRAAP criteria. The article by Shi and colleagues (2022) titled “The Prevalence of Diabetes, Prediabetes, and Associated Risk Factors in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province: A community-based cross-sectional study”, published in the journal Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy fulfill the CRAAP criteria by: 

Capella 4030 Assessment 2

  1. Currency – the publication age of this article is within 5 years, which gives a strong point that the article is based on current trends and practices. 
  2. Relevance – the title and the content of the article is relevant to the topic of research which is diabetes mellitus. 
  3. Authority – authors are well-versed in their knowledge about the topic as they belong to the field and work in healthcare organizations. Moreover, the publishing journal is credible and relevant to the health condition as well. 
  4. Accuracy – the article is well-supported by scholarly data as evidenced by the citations and references provided by the authors. 
  5. Purpose – the purpose of the study is clear and meaningful for the audience and the healthcare professionals. 

Credibility and Relevance of Evidence and Resources

The scholarly evidence used in this paper for diabetes mellitus is reliable and credible for healthcare professionals to learn and gain knowledge for improving their practices by the integration of evidence-based practice. For example: 

The article authorized by Punthakee and fellows (2018) which provides information about diabetes, prediabetes, and metabolic syndrome is credible as it covers the CRAAP criteria and its relevance to the topic. This article presents the ranges of blood glucose levels to classify different types of diabetes and prediabetes. The information presented is helpful for nurses and other healthcare professionals to include the knowledge in their care and management of these patients (Punthakee et al., 2018). 

Another study by Saeedi and colleagues (2020) is credible and relevant because it fulfills CRAAP criteria. Moreover, this article is based on a study to estimate the rate of mortality in a group of populations related to diabetes. It is relevant for healthcare professionals to understand the risk of diabetes, identify the high-risk population, and improve their outcomes using evidence-based practices (Saeedi et al., 2020).

Capella 4030 Assessment 2

There are several resources available online that are credible and relevant to the topic of diabetes mellitus. These resources help in understanding the disease succinctly and applying evidence-based strategies to care for and manage the patients suffering from the disease. One of the articles which explain the management of type II diabetes using current practices is a useful resource for healthcare professionals to effectively manage their diabetic patients in clinical practice. This article explicitly advises lifestyle modifications as a successful strategy that patients can employ to improve their diabetes and prevent complications (Borse et al., 2020).

Similarly, another article by Aloke and his co-workers (2022) is on the current advances in the management of diabetes where the focus is on gene therapy, nanotechnology, stem cell, nutrition therapy, and lifestyle modifications. The knowledge about these advancements will assist healthcare professionals in better planning the management of diabetes for their patients, introducing new treatment regimens in their clinical settings, and ensuring patients receive evidence-based care (Aloke et al., 2022).

In a nutshell, literature sources that provide an explicit understanding of the disease/health condition and recommend evidence-based interventions which can be integrated into clinical practices with the purpose to improve patients’ outcomes are useful, credible, and reliable for healthcare professionals. 

The Importance of Evidence-based Practice Model 

The best method to utilize this evidence-based research information is to incorporate them into the evidence-based practice (EBP) model. There are several EBP models which are developed for healthcare professionals to use during their clinical practices. This paper is focused on providing details about the Iowa model for nurses. The Iowa model was developed in the 1990s, with a commitment to convert research information into healthcare practice. This model helps nurses in making appropriate decisions for their patients to improve healthcare delivery and minimize poor quality of care (Chiwaula et al., 2021).

There are seven steps of the Iowa model; 1) identification of contributing factors that are causing the healthcare problem (diabetes) and are important to be managed to reduce the complications, 2) analyzing the importance of this problem for the organization by examining the number of cases ending up in complicated stage and mortality rates, 3) a team of interprofessional members is created so that a collaborative approach can be used for the management of the disease, 4) finding the sources of information which are credible and reliable using the CRAAP criteria, 5) critical reasoning is performed for the information gathered considering social, cultural, economic, and organizational factors, 6) introduce the change with the organization using specific and relevant resources, and 7) the results of the reforms are analyzed to ensure that desired outcomes are received. In case of poor consequences, immediate changes are done (Cullen et al., 2022).


In conclusion, evidence-based research is defined as the identification of credible and reliable resources which can be included in clinical practices, which is called evidence-based practices. Healthcare professionals need to use EBP, especially for diabetes patients as this is one of the chronic diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate. To successfully utilize EBR, various EBP models have been developed, one of which is the Iowa model for nurses. This integration of researched resources will improve the knowledge of healthcare professionals thus, improving their healthcare practices. Consequently, results in improved patient outcomes and enhances the quality of care. 


Abu-Baker, N. N., AbuAlrub, S., Obeidat, R. F., & Assmairan, K. (2021). Evidence-based practice beliefs and implementations: A cross-sectional study among undergraduate nursing students. BMC Nursing20(1).  

Aloke, C., Egwu, C. O., Aja, P. M., Obasi, N. A., Chukwu, J., Akumadu, B. O., Ogbu, P. N., & Achilonu, I. (2022). Current advances in the management of diabetes mellitus. Biomedicines, 10(10), 2436.

Borse, S. P., Chhipa, A. S., Sharma, V., Singh, D. P., & Nivsarkar, M. (2020). Management of type 2 diabetes: Current strategies, unfocussed aspects, challenges, and alternatives. Medical Principles and Practice30(2), 109–121. 

Chiwaula, C. H., Kanjakaya, P., Chipeta, D., Chikatipwa, A., Kalimbuka, T., Zyambo, L., Nkata, S., & Jere, D. L. (2021). Introducing evidence-based practice in nursing care delivery, utilizing the Iowa model in Intensive Care Unit at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences14, 100272. 

Cullen, L., Hanrahan, K., Edmonds, S. W., Reisinger, H. S., & Wagner, M. (2022). Iowa implementation for Sustainability Framework. Implementation Science17(1). 

Capella 4030 Assessment 2

Li, S., Cao, M., & Zhu, X. (2019, September). Evidence-based practice: Knowledge, attitudes, implementation, facilitators, and barriers among community nurses-systematic review. Medicine. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from 

Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning Craap. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning21(3). 

Punthakee, Z., Goldenberg, R., & Katz, P. (2018). Definition, classification, and diagnosis of diabetes, Prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Canadian Journal of Diabetes42. 

Robinson, K. A., Brunnhuber, K., Ciliska, D., Juhl, C. B., Christensen, R., & Lund, H. (2021). Evidence-based research series-paper 1: What evidence-based research is and why is it important? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology129, 151–157. 

Saeedi, P., Salpea, P., Karuranga, S., Petersohn, I., Malanda, B., Gregg, E. W., Unwin, N., Wild, S. H., & Williams, R. (2020). Mortality attributable to diabetes in 20–79 years old adults, 2019 estimates: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice162, 108086. 

Shi, M., Zhang, X., & Wang, H. (2022). The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes and associated risk factors in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province: A community-based cross-sectional study. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 15, 713–721.

Capella 4030 Assessment 2