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NHS FPX 6008 Assessment 2 Needs Analysis for Change

Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 6008 Economics and Decision Making in Health Care Prof. Name Date Introduction Medication is fundamental to healthcare provision, yet escalating drug costs in the United States are impacting treatment adherence among elderly populations (UNODC, 2020). This issue extends globally, straining healthcare budgets and altering perceptions of medication seeking behavior (Leighl et al., 2021). Affordability concerns compound in nations without universal healthcare, exacerbating out-of-pocket expenses. Economic Healthcare Challenges Economic factors not only affect affordability but also strain the healthcare system’s treatment approach and options (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2019). A needs analysis is imperative to grasp the economic burden’s implications and devise solutions. Impact Analysis Nurses’ Perspective Elevated drug prices directly affect nurses’ ability to provide care, complicating patient explanations and treatment alternatives (Rajkumar, 2020). Organizational Impact Healthcare organizations face budgetary constraints, compromising care quality and development (Leighl et al., 2021). Community Ramifications Rising drug costs reverberate through communities, exacerbating mental health issues and familial stress (Racial Disparities, Prescription Medications, and Promoting Equity, n.d.). Collegial Effects Healthcare professionals face increased workload and stress, balancing patient care with affordability challenges. Ethical and Equitable Solutions Socioeconomic Disparities Universal healthcare and insurance accessibility mitigate financial barriers, promoting equitable access to medication (Hong et al., 2020). Racial Disparities Addressing racial disparities in prescription access requires policy interventions and standardized pricing (Chisholm-Burns et al., 2017). Evidence-Based Strategies Research Insights Studies underscore the need for affordable medication options, innovation incentives, and policy frameworks promoting community health (Kakkar, 2021; Kesselheim et al., 2016). Implementation Plan Universal Healthcare Implementing universal healthcare fosters equal access to medication, irrespective of socioeconomic status. Insurance Accessibility Insurance coverage should be universal, with flexible payment options, minimizing underinsurance risks. Policy Reforms Government interventions standardize medication pricing and distribution, curbing monopolistic practices. Pharmaceutical Reforms Regulatory measures ensure fair pricing practices, stimulating innovation and affordability. Research and Development Investment in R&D yields cost-effective alternatives and nutritional interventions. Conclusion Elevated drug pricing presents multifaceted challenges, necessitating collaborative efforts and policy reforms to ensure equitable access to medication for all demographics. References Chisholm-Burns, M. A., Spivey, C. A., Gatwood, J., Wiss, A., Hohmeier, K., & Erickson, S. R. (2017). Evaluation of racial and socioeconomic disparities in medication pricing and pharmacy access and services. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 74(10), 653–668. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp150872 Hong, Y.-R., Hincapie-Castillo, J. M., Xie, Z., Segal, R., & Mainous, A. G. (2020). Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of US Adults Who Purchase Prescription Drugs From Other Countries. JAMA Network Open, 3(6), e208968. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8968 Kakkar, A. K. (2021). Pharmaceutical price regulation and its impact on drug innovation: mitigating the trade-offs. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 31(3), 189–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2021.1876029 Kesselheim, A. S., Avorn, J., & Sarpatwari, A. (2016). The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States. JAMA, 316(8), 858. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.11237 Leighl, N. B., Nirmalakumar, S., Ezeife, D. A., & Gyawali, B. (2021). An Arm and a Leg: The Rising Cost of Cancer Drugs and Impact on Access. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, 41(41), e1–e12. https://doi.org/10.1200/edbk_100028 NHS FPX 6008 Assessment 2 Needs Analysis for Change UNODC. (2020). UNODC World Drug Report 2020: Global drug use rising; while COVID-19 has far reaching impact on global drug markets. United Nations : Office on Drugs and Crime. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/press/releases/2020/June/media-advisory—global-launch-of-the-2020-world-drug-report.html PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2019). Behind the numbers 2019: Healthcare and medical cost trends: PwC. PwC. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/industries/health-industries/library/behind-the-numbers.html Philipson, T., & Durie, T. (2021). ISSUE BRIEF: THE EVIDENCE BASE ON THE IMPACT OF PRICE CONTROLS ON MEDICAL INNOVATION SEPTEMBER 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2023, from https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/voices.uchicago.edu/dist/d/3128/files/2021/08/Issue-Brief-Price-Controls-and-Drug-Innovation-Philipson.pdf Rajkumar, S. V. (2020). The high cost of prescription drugs: Causes and solutions. Blood Cancer Journal, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0338-x Racial Disparities, Prescription Medications, and Promoting Equity. (n.d.). Public Health Post. https://www.publichealthpost.org/viewpoints/racial-disparities-prescription-medications-equity/ NHS FPX 6008 Assessment 2 Needs Analysis for Change

NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 4 Health Promotion Plan Presentation

Student Name Capella University NURS4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health Prof. Name Date Health Promotion Plan Presentation Hello everyone, my name is Dulijita, and today I’ll talk about my assessment of childhood immunization. Immunizations come amongst the most effective initiatives that are undertaken for prevention of diseases. Childhood immunization is an important program for promoting health in young infants and children by preventing them from multiple diseases. Childhood vaccinations play a vital role in healthy growth and survival of the children (Hussain et al., 2021). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, vaccines are important in preventing life-threatening infectious diseases such as measles, cholera, chicken pox, whooping cough etc. and also boost the immune system of children. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). In one study, it was shown that by using vaccines, the death rate declined to 24% in children under 5 years of age from 2010 to 2017 (Desalew et al., 2020). While this extraordinary strategy can be employed to reduce childhood death due to infectious diseases and enhance the growth and survival of children in a healthy manner, there are still some barriers that are present in our society that hinders this activity in young infants and children. Some of these barriers are related to the parents’ perception of immunization and other factors such as gender, beliefs, and cultural factors. Others are related to healthcare system barriers to immunization in some cases. Amongst the parental or caretaker’ barriers, the top most common barrier is the lack of knowledge of immunizations in parents/caretakers which leads to either no immunization in newborns and children or incomplete vaccination (Kyprianidou et al., 2021) . NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 4 Health Promotion Plan Presentation Some parents/caretakers consider traditional medicines more superior to the vaccines and which is why they neglect childhood immunization. Lack of trust towards vaccines is another obstacle for not practicing the immunization process in children. Besides these barriers, there are barriers that can not be modified such as lack of finances to support the cost of immunization plan, place of residence of mother or caretaker being far from the hospital with immunization setup and males being in charge of decision for childhood vaccination and their illiteracy. Sociocultural factors such as practicing traditional medicines such as use of honey for a newborn has been practiced in many cultures and religions. Hospital barriers to immunization program and practice includes non-functional cold chain, limited supply and distribution of vaccines, human resource constraint. (Banguara et al., 2020). The Plan based on Specific, Identified Health Needs and Goals I had an educational session with a mothers of infants and the questioner was the crucial segment of our interaction. The mothers of the child were not knowledgeable and we had educational session and talked about the need for immunization and how the child’s body requires to be immunized to remain disease-free most of its life, I educated her on the fact that every year 2-3 million children’s lives are saved by vaccination (Nandi & Shet, 2020). Without childhood immunization, children are at risk of acquiring continuous infections that recur in their early childhood and ultimately result in poor growth that can further affect adult health, cognitive abilities, and economic progress. Our health promotion goal was to ensure an adequate healthy diet and nutrition, health interventions like routine immunizations to lessen infectious disease incidents in the early years of childhood, and other factors that ultimately lead to breaking the generational cycle of destituteness, an unhealthy life, poor finances, and unsustainable development goals. (Decouttere et al., 2021). Educational Outcomes and the Attainment of Agreed-Upon Health Goals We created educational billboards, booklets and pamphlets about childhood immunization and the health concerns related to it and acquired hospital consent to spread them for raising awareness. We appear to have gained all of the conditions for this outcome. Factors that can promote parents’ adherence to childhood immunization include parents’ perception of children’s vulnerability towards deadly infectious diseases, perceived barriers, and self-efficiency (Hobani & Alhalal, 2022). In collaboration with the healthcare professionals associated with the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), we can promote the education of these factors to advance childhood immunization in our community. On conducting educational sessions with mothers, prior to the educational session on childhood immunization and its importance, participants completed a pre-test to assess their knowledge and understanding of the topic. The pre-test consisted of 10 questions, and the average score across all participants was 35%. After the educational session, participants completed a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. The average score on the post-test was 80%, indicating a significant increase in knowledge and understanding of childhood immunization. In addition to the knowledge assessment, participants were asked about their intentions to vaccinate their children in the future. Prior to the session, only 50% of participants reported that they intended to vaccinate their child. NURS FPX 4060 Assessment 4 Health Promotion Plan Presentation After the session, this increased to 85%, indicating that the session was effective in changing participants’ attitudes and intentions towards childhood immunization.There are numerous data about the childhood immunization provided by the healthcare professionals, practitioners, lecturers, and lawmakers. Survey questions, questionnaires, and observation methodology are some of the research strategies and are a source of delivering information, having its own advantages and disadvantages. From national resources, variables required should be more than two as the main objective for them is parents’/caregivers’ interest in their child’s evaluation after the immunization, hence health experts should inform them of their child’s evaluation as soon as possible (Pronk et al., 2021). Healthy People 2030 Objectives and Leading Health Indicators Healthy people 2030 also promotes childhood immunization programs so that a healthy growing community of children can be raised and less hospital visits and economic imbalance take place. we considers vaccination in early life pivotal to prevent diseases like hepatitis and pertussis. We raised awareness in our educational sessions keeping these objectives of Healthy People 2030 regarding childhood immunization. In an evidence-based

NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 2 Protected Health Information (PHI), Privacy, Security, and Confidentiality Best Practice

Student Name Capella University NURS4040 Managing Health Information and Technology Prof. Name Date References American Medical Association. (2023). HIPAA violations & enforcement. American Medical Association. https://www.ama-assn.org/practice-management/hipaa/hipaa-violations-enforcement  Chen, J., & Wang, Y. (2020). Social media usage for health purposes: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(5). https://doi.org/10.2196/17917  Isola, S., & Al Khalili, Y. (2023). Protected Health Information. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553131/  Martin, C. L., Kramer-Kostecka, E. N., Linde, J. A., Friend, S., Zuroski, V. R., & Fulkerson, J. A. (2020). Leveraging interdisciplinary teams to develop and implement secure websites for behavioral research: Applied tutorial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e19217. https://doi.org/10.2196/19217  Mbonihankuye, S., Nkunzimana, A., & Ndagijimana, A. (2019). Healthcare data security technology: HIPAA compliance. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2019(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1927495 

NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 1 Nursing Informatics in Health Care

Student Name Capella University NURS4040 Managing Health Information and Technology Prof. Name Date Nursing Informatics in Health Care Nursing informatics is a science which is defined as a specialized nursing science. This includes knowledge of different analytical sciences that helps to describe, manage and transmit data and prudence in nurse practitioners.To provide the best opportunity to the care teams ; nurses help with lot of things from providing information on novel ideas, technologies, devising plans to implement for the health care and patient benefit. They also evaluate data. The scope of practise for nurses in informatics jobs has evolved and shifted over the last two decades in response to the needs of health care organizations. While informatician practise has rarely been well defined or limited in terms of role responsibilities and scope, it has made a substantial contribution to the evolution and spread of information and communication technology (ICT) around the world. Furthermore, the formation of linked certifications and placed informatics as a specialization within nursing and other health professions has resulted from the introduction of institutionalized education in nursing and health informatics. Role of Nurse as Informaticist In interdesciplinary groups nurse informaticist collaborate with their colleagues to improve communication. This not only strengthen the patient safety but also bridge the gap between the patient and nurse and make a better understanding. An informaticist is a trained nurse practitioner that is skilful in performing many different tasks with efficiency. They have wider area of expertise. This helps them acquiring knowledge as well as made them favorable for evaluating data based on electronic health records. A nurse informaticist, for example is in charge of enabling the computer-based provider order entry (CPOE) system. Which captures assessment result from electronic medicine records (EMRs) along with the progress, nursing and prescription notes. Nursing informaticist take the initiative to meet nursing needs from electronic medicine records while also raising interdisciplinary groups’ health care and prevention standards (Strudwick ., et al 2019) They are the most recommended nursing structure because they play an important role in patient’s health care by preserving clinical records of patient’s health structures, monitoring access to health care norms and evaluating health providers from interdisciplinary groups. Nursing informatics commonly employ informatics solutions to detect patients with increased risks inside serious diseases by including curative and preventative measures into early therapeutic modalities (Nagle 2021). NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 1 Nursing Informatics in Health Care Early medical techniques also reduce the probability of treatment errors by notifying interdisciplinary groups about the dangers of unintentional harmful effects, such as diseases linked to patients’ allergies induced by unsafe drug combinations (Kim 2018). The developments in electronic-technology and nurse informaticist have made a massive influence on health-care system globally (Edward., et al 2018). An important nursing science and practice goal is to connect technology to improve nursing practice and patient health in the clinic. Nurse informaticist played a huge role in estimating the health of patients. It guide nurses to make their own research and provide evidence based care to their patients. The research claimed that the nurse informaticist can immensely benefit doctors and other health care staff. As their main objective is to provide better communication, precision and easy approach to patient’s data. Already said that nurses played a key role in maintaining the environment of hospital and as they re trained to supervise any kind of change. Hence it was deduced that nurses with the collaboration of nurse informaticist can make a dynamic effect by promoting novel strategies of health and implementing administrative rules. Consequently, nurse informaticist have made a significant reduction in medical errors, patient-treatment delays and medicinal costs ( Bakonja., et al 2021). Nurse informaticist are able to translate the data of foreign language as they are convenient with the use comprehensive tools. Further they are also found to have expertise in data transmission from one source to another by carefully managing the confidentiality. Collaborations of Nurses with interdisciplinary Team  It has been estimated that nurses are efficient collaborators and focal persons of patient health. As they conduct repeated evaluations to check the treatment plan for the patient.Also they make sure the protection of their rights in interdisciplinary group discussions. They make better suggestion for cure as they are better able to deal the patient with understanding them emotionally.  The performance level of nurse  can be defined by the team work, collaboration, communication, coordination, protection of patient right and health, care initiatives. Moreover it also employs to make excellent solutions for patient problems by taking care of their family and personal health. Risk of liability of medicinal use can be estimated by the efficiency of care nurse provide to the chronic disease patient beacuse these patients might react to the medicines differently (Wang., et al 20). NURS FPX 4040 Assessment 1 Nursing Informatics in Health Care Furthermore, it is recommended that to assess the competency of nurses as a personal support; the quality level of nurses in a interdisciplinary group must be maintained. The patient history must be known to the nurses to make prime care possible. Nurses must be vigilant to track the record of the patient medicine, expiry dates must be viewed before giving. They must bed constantly informed of the new methods for patient safety and terminating the use of  drug that is being banned by FDA under any circumstances (McGonigle., et al 2021). Requiring Nurse Informaticist in Health-Care-Settings In today’s world, it is important for nurse informaticists in health-care settings to take preventive measures for the enhancement and greater quality of life of patients by utilizing technology in accordance with the disease’s requirements. However, it is only applicable when dealing with modern technology and leveraging nurses’ experience in interdisciplinary health care settings. Simply by coordination of health care system, making use of telehealth, social media utilization as a support group and building health care networks can aid nurse informaticist  vulnerable to succeed. Nurses’ roles remained toiling and productive for four decades (Sensmeier., et al 2019). Nursing professionals employ

NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 3 Improvement Plan in Service Presentation

Student Name Capella University NURS4020 Improving Quality of Care and Patient Safety Prof. Name Date Improvement Plan In-Service Presentation Hello everyone; I am ___, and today, I will discuss the safety improvement plan in this in-service presentation. First, I appreciate the participation of all these nurses who play a massive role in Tampa General Hospital by providing care treatments to patients day and night. However, we all know our hospital lags in providing adequate safety through care treatments, and we encounter numerous medication errors. To alleviate the incidence of these errors and enhance the safety of our patients, I will present a safety improvement plan to you all, encouraging you to improve your performance. I will first discuss the agenda of this presentation with you all. Agenda and Outcomes This presentation will entail the following content: By discussing these points, nurses can implement the safety improvement plan. This will enhance patient safety, reduce healthcare costs to patients and the system, improve work efficiency, and promote the hospital’s reputation. Now, let us begin discussing each point in detail. Please park your questions till the end, when we will conduct a question-answer session. Purpose and Goals of In-Service Presentation Session This in-service presentation session aims to mitigate the number of medication administration errors in our hospital lately. Medication administration errors are preventable adverse events that must be avoided in healthcare. Hospitals aim to improve patients’ conditions, and nurses must deliver quality care that satisfies patients’ health needs without aggravating their disease progressions. The goals of this presentation are as follows: NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 3 Improvement Plan in Service Presentation Safety Improvement Plan Overview of Current Problem and Proposed Plan The medication administration errors at TGH mainly occur for various reasons. The primary causes include nurses’ competencies in meeting the medication administration standards, such as double-checking the medications, following the five rights of medication administration, lack of maintenance of automated dispensing systems, and negligence towards identifying medication errors due to non-serious attitudes. Therefore, the proposed safety improvement plan is made in such a way that it addresses these causes of medication administration errors. The proposed safety improvement plan comprises training and educational programs for nurses to promote safe medication administration, revising the hospital’s SOPs for nurses, including developing policies on mindful medication administration and integrating BCMA technology and its practical use. The training session for nurses will enlighten their knowledge of accurate medication administration (Manias et al., 2021). The nurses will administer medication mindfully, applying the principles of safe medication delivery and ignoring external interruptions (Yang et al., 2022). Moreover, the BCMA technology integration can prevent medication errors due to wrong medication administration (Owens et al., 2020). Need to Improve Safety Outcomes TGH needs to improve safety outcomes for patients and reduce the incidences of medication administration errors.  Medication administration errors cause additional distress to patients physically, emotionally, and financially (Elliott et al., 2021). Patients’ recovery time extends, the chances of acquiring nosocomial infections increase, and they have to undergo additional treatments, which impacts their health. Moreover, their emotional and mental health is profoundly impacted as they experience adverse events like medication administration errors, increasing the chances of onset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Aubin et al., 2022). NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 3 Improvement Plan in Service Presentation The financial implications further worsen the condition as additional treatments and extended hospital stays require additional expenditures. Besides, the organization faces numerous issues, such as a declining reputation, financial implications, and decreased revenue, as patients prefer other health facilities over TGH. One study shows that healthcare costs can be reduced by $108 million in the U.S. by implementing harm-reduction strategies (Vaismoradi et al., 2020). Considering these factors, TGH must address this issue of medication administration and improve patient safety to avoid devastating repercussions in the future. Audience’s Role and Importance  Your active participation and adherence to the plan are required to implement the safety improvement plan successfully. As the nursing staff is mainly involved in medication administration, they must practice safe and correct medication administration techniques and strategies. By implementing these ways, nurses can enhance patients’ safety and reduce their vulnerability to medication administration errors. The patient’s clinical health outcomes will improve as nurses follow medication administration protocols and avoid errors. Moreover, the healthcare costs will be reduced when nurses help implement the plan and drive improvements in the safe medication management process. Their critical position in medication administration makes them valuable stakeholders who can successfully implement the safety improvement plan (Vaismoradi et al., 2020). Benefits of Active Participation of Nurses   Nurses can benefit from embracing their role in the plan in several ways. They will not have to pay heavy penalties for making medication errors. Their job satisfaction will be enhanced. Moreover, through correct medication administration, nurses will be saved from providing extensive recovery treatment, leading to reduced work burnout and an adequate work-life balance. The healthcare organization will give them additional bonuses, leadership roles, and other rewards for minimizing medication administration errors. New Process and Skills Practice The nurses will be required to gain expertise in new processes and skills to help them administer medications without making any mistakes. Some of these new processes and skills that they can adopt are as follows: Resources and Activities Before concluding this presentation, I created resources and activities to understand the new processes and skill practices. I have printed six of the latest medication administration articles and relevant health information technologies to lessen these errors. I would like you all to make six groups of 5 members each. Then, I will distribute one printed article to each group. Then, I will give you all twenty minutes to review them and share your insights and any questions here individually. This activity will further increase your knowledge of medication administration and encourage the implementation of this safety improvement initiative. We will discuss the questions thoroughly, and I will address them so that your confusion can vanish. Lastly, I would take your feedback on this improvement plan

NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 1 Enhancing Quality and Safety

Student Name Capella University NURS4020 Improving Quality of Care and Patient Safety Prof. Name Date Enhancing Quality and Safety The primary purpose of the healthcare system is to provide improved quality of care that enhances patient safety and satisfaction. This paper explains the factors involved in patient safety risks due to Medication Administration Errors (MAEs) that lead to adverse events or sometimes cost a patient’s life. MAEs occur due to violating the five medication administration rights, including incorrect drug, patient, dose, frequency, and time. Further in the paper, evidence-based practices and solutions are provided to improve patient safety by reducing MA errors. Moreover, the nurse’s role and collaboration with different stakeholders are also explained, which reduces the cost and enhances the quality of care within the healthcare system.   Factors Leading to Specific Patient Safety Risks  The patient, Jiliana, is a 60-year-old woman with anaphylactic symptoms who came to the emergency room in the community hospital. The patient’s medical history revealed hypertension and obesity. Upon the examination, the doctor prescribed a handwritten prescription which mentioned to “administer Epinephrine 1mg” only. The duty nurse without further probing into the correct route, administered her Epinephrine to aid with allergic symptoms through an intravenous route, which immediately caused an intense, crushing pain that made her lose consciousness. The resuscitation team in the hospital was called. Through supplemental oxygen and other resuscitation methods, the patient was reverted. However, this incident was a life-threatening situation for the patient. Hence, a comprehensive case investigation was performed. The case investigation revealed several factors involved in this incident that led to the mild but reversible condition. One of the factors is the negligence of healthcare professionals while prescribing and administering medications. While the physician neglected to consider the patient’s hypertensive history before ordering a drug and did not mention the route in the prescription, the nurse neglected to double-check with the doctor and the pharmacist before administering the drug. NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 1 Enhancing Quality and Safety Another factor is the communication gap among the healthcare professionals as there was a lack of collaboration among the physician, pharmacist, and nurses which led to the adverse drug event, eventually causing complications for the patients. According to the literature, most MAEs occur due to negligent behaviour and lack of communication among healthcare professionals. This negligence and communication gap leads to several preventable adverse events which are harmful to patient safety (Tariq & Scherbak, 2023). Health literacy is another important factor. Like in the given scenario the doctor did not check the patient’s medical history as she has hypertension, and prescribed medication that could be harmful to the patient. Health literacy of healthcare providers related to medication and risk factors associated with medication administration is an essential component of preventing patients’ safety (Mueller et al., 2019). Lastly, the lack of technological involvement in the medication management process led to a significant issue in Jiliana’s case. If the hospital had the Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Electronic Medication Administration Records (EMAR) system, there would be minimal chances of medication errors as a shared portal would have improved communication and alerted every healthcare professional for potential errors. Evidence-Based and Best Practice Solutions  Incidences like the one described above may bring various challenges related to patient safety which can be addressed using several evidence-based and best practices.  Standardized Guidelines: The Joint Commission International Accreditation (JCIA) body has helped healthcare organizations and healthcare professionals to create a safer evidence-based practice and environment for patients and healthcare providers to enhance patient safety by providing standardized patient safety goals (patient identification and medication management). These goals are related to medication administration as, which will help in preventing errors if followed adequately in the healthcare settings (ElLithy et al., 2023).  Effective Communication: The communication between healthcare professionals, such as physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, helps to improve patient safety in the healthcare setting. Effective Communication of the healthcare providers is enhanced when the experienced professional provide training and session to the novice nurse about medication administration. Effective communication during novice nurse training reduces the hospital’s cost to hire experienced or registered nurses for patient safety. Moreover, double-checking of prescriptions will also save the cost of medication patient and hospital. This will enable the nurses to give the right medication to the right patient with a correct route (Rodziewicz et al., 2023).  Technological Integration: Technical integration such as Barcode Medication Administration (BCMA) and Electronic Health Records (EHR) improve patient safety and is practical to adopt. BCMA helps to fulfil the five rights of medication administration, which enhances hospital efficacy and prevents MAEs. It enables the pharmacist to avoid mistakes in look-alike-sound-alike medication. BCMA reduces the rates of MAEs, ultimately reducing the cost of the patient’s stay at the hospital. Moreover, it also saves the patient’s cost of transportation due to the correct administration of the medicine (Shermock et al., 2023). Nurse Role in Care Coordination and Cost Reduction  Nurses are the frontline force that helps the healthcare system provide quality care and improve patient safety. MAEs are the leading cause of hospitalization and disability worldwide, which include multiple factors; one of them is mainly due to novice nurses and their negligence. The training of the nurses in medication administration helps them to understand the five rights of medication administration, which include the correct dose, route, patient, timing, and frequency. Training young nurses with registered nurses will improve patient safety as they discuss the patient cases during training. NURS FPX 4020 Assessment 1 Enhancing Quality and Safety Moreover, this training session enables them to communicate and collaborate with healthcare professionals such as pharmacists to get information about the new and LASA drugs (Luokkamäki et al., 2020). Care coordination involves a multidisciplinary team, which helps the patient receive an improved quality of care and enhances patient safety. The nurses will collaborate with the physician and pharmacist in a team to provide care at the right time to the right patient. The incidence reporting system within the healthcare setting will help the

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles

Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Applying Ethical Principles Healthcare organizations worldwide deal with various ethical issues. These difficulties range from resource allocation quandaries to ensuring fair access to care, all of which necessitate the use of ethical principles. Ethical dilemmas are one of the issues of ethical principles, in which individuals face conflicting moral principles, making decisions difficult with no clear right or wrong choice. One of the similar case studies is discussed in this assessment.  The Ethical Case Study – To Vaccinate, or Not? In this case study, Anna, a newborn at Community Hospital, became the center of an ethical dilemma. Her parents, Jenna and Chris Smith, have decided not to vaccinate their daughter. They quoted the concerns they learned from internet mother blogs about vaccine hazards, including a potential link to autism. Dr. Angela Kerr, Anna’s pediatrician, promotes vaccination, highlighting its proven benefits in preventing disease and protecting public health. Dr. Kerr responds to the Smiths’ worries with scientific facts, highlighting vaccine success in lowering child mortality and disproving the autism-vaccine link. She also mentions vaccine safety monitoring methods such as the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to comfort the Smiths. Dr. Kerr also discusses herd immunity, highlighting its role in protecting susceptible individuals. Despite her efforts, the Smiths maintained their decision not to vaccinate Anna, presenting a complex ethical dilemma balancing parental autonomy, patient benefits, and public health concerns. It is assumed in this scenario that both sides prioritize their interests while relying on different sources of information and ethical principles, resulting in an ongoing ethical conflict requiring immediate and ethically sound solutions (Capella University, 2023). Assessment of Facts from the Case Study The case study’s outcome, revolves around Dr. Kerr’s ethical predicament. She faces a challenging decision, balancing medical expertise with the parents’ preferences. The contentious issue of childhood immunizations, frequently encountered in healthcare settings, arises when parents are hesitant to vaccinate their children, and this stance contradicts established medical research. Vital facts analyzed within the case study include parental vaccine refusal, the availability of misinformation from unreliable online sources, and compelling medical research advocating for vaccination benefits. Parental Refusal Due to Harmful Effect of Vaccination The case study showed that the Smiths strongly reject vaccination due to safety concerns that vaccine risks overcome the benefits. They cite increasing autism rates as proof. A study by Khattak et al. (2021) reports vaccine hesitancy as a global issue in more than 90% of countries. In Romania, 11.7% of parents refuse vaccination for their children, while in countries like the UK and USA, the rate has reached 30%. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles Further in the study, it is mentioned that the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated vaccination refusal as one of the top ten global hazards to public health in 2019 (Khattak et al., 2021). Another study by Nurmi et al. (2021) showed that childhood vaccine refusal is driven by concerns over vaccine risks, distrust in healthcare authorities, and reliance on alternative health practices.  Misinformation About Vaccines The case study revealed that Smith’s decision is heavily influenced by unverified blogs that spread vaccination disinformation. A study by Larson et al. (2020) highlights the role of social media in polarizing opinions, particularly in individuals’ health-related decisions. This research provides empirical evidence demonstrating misinformation’s substantial influence on Personal health choices. Moreover, it sheds light on the complex ethical challenges healthcare providers face as they strive to advocate for evidence-based practices amid these information dynamics. Positive Impacts of Vaccines In the case study, it is presented that Dr. Kerr discussed the advantages of vaccinations, with a specific focus on Measles and Haemophilus Influenzae illnesses. The research unveiled significant discrepancies in vaccination rates, with measles demonstrating relatively high acceptance compared to other vaccines, such as anti-pneumococcal. The study highlights the impact of compulsory vaccination laws on improving coverage and delves into the ethical considerations associated with such mandates. Overall, the results emphasize the importance of vaccination strategies and health advocacy, with measles vaccination being a noteworthy success (Bertoncello et al., 2021). These resources embrace significance for multiple reasons: a) they provide in-depth perspectives on vaccine hesitancy, b) they present meticulously researched evidence countering unreliable online sources, and c) they strongly emphasize the pivotal role of vaccines in disease prevention, offering a unique standpoint. Communication Approaches and Their Effectiveness In this case study,  Dr. Kerr’s communication skills align to help Ana’s parents understand their concerns. She follows the prompting communication approach, allowing the parents to express their concerns and listen to their reasons for refusing vaccination. This strategy was effective as it enabled Dr. Kerr to gain parental trust. Dr. Kerr recognized that vaccinating Ana was the right medical decision but respected the need for parental consent, avoiding potential ethical dilemmas. Through an informed communication approach, she focused on informed decision-making that highlighted the benefits of vaccination, aiming to change the parents’ perspective and ultimately protect Ana’s health. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles A study by Miller et al. (2020) highlighted effective healthcare communication as an effective strategy that should be incorporated into medical practices to build a therapeutic relationship and good rapport with clients. Moreover, Pokhilenko et al. (2021) present that the communication approach of informed decision-making is practical as it provides individuals with complete rights over their health choices, fulfilling medical duties, and conveying essential information. The ineffective approaches of ignorance, imposing treatments without respecting autonomy, and non-verbal communication approaches that give negative impressions to the patients should be avoided.  Ethical Decision-Making Model                                                                                      The resource from Capella University (2023) outlines an ethical decision-making model with three main components: moral awareness, judgment, and behavior. This approach is the foundation for ethical committees to formulate and advocate moral decisions. Dr. Kerr expertly negotiated the ethical decision-making model for the Smiths’ vaccine hesitation. She demonstrated acute moral awareness by understanding the conflict between parental autonomy and public health concerns around Ana’s immunization. After the issue is identified, with the moral

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 4 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue

Student Name Capella University NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective Prof. Name Date Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue   Medication errors can be described as a failure in the medication management process. It can be due to improper prescription, administration, or inaccurate medication records that can potentially damage the patient, resulting in poor health outcomes (Mosisa et al., 2022). This academic paper addresses a significant healthcare concern: medication errors within the healthcare system. The growing incidences of medication errors have developed my interest in this topic. As a healthcare provider, I must prioritize initiatives to prevent these errors in my nursing practice. In the professional context, I have observed various medication errors in my organization where healthcare providers administered incorrect medication doses, misread prescriptions, and neglected possible drug interactions, leading to severe patient complications. Thus, it is essential to tackle the underlying causes and put strong protections in place to reduce medication errors and ensure patient safety. Medication Errors as a Healthcare Issue Globally, medication errors cause morbidity, mortality, and adverse economic effects. The prevalence of medication errors may be correlated with the involvement of healthcare professionals such as medical experts, unit assistants, physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. In USA Intensive Care Units (ICUs), it has been observed that 42% of medication errors are crucial to continuing treatment, while 19% are life-threatening (Alrabadi et al., 2021). One-quarter of all healthcare errors are related to medication errors, including prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that drug errors cost the global economy $42 billion yearly, or 0.7% of all health spending (Manias et al., 2020). According to the study by Alqenae et al. (2020), Medication errors (MEs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and create severe risks to patients’ safety after discharge from the hospital. According to the review, over half of adult and senior patients have at least one medication error after discharge, with one in every five having one or more ADEs. Antibiotics, antidiabetics, analgesics, and cardiovascular medicines are the most typically related medication classes with ADEs. This highlights the significance of addressing medication safety during care transitions, and further research is required to find effective strategies to lessen these risks. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 4 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue These articles are valuable because they analyze the global significance of medication errors, their impact on patient safety, and the economic consequences. They provide specific statistics and insights into the prevalence and severity of medication errors. They highlight the need for interventions and research to mitigate these risks and improve healthcare outcomes. Analyze the Problem or Issue in Medication Error Medication errors are preventable mistakes that can result in incorrect medication use or harm to the patient. It can occur at any stage of the healthcare process, from prescribing to administration, and involves professionals, patients, and consumers. Medication errors in the healthcare system involve several groups. Prescription, preparation, and administration of pharmaceuticals are the responsibility of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. Patients also have an essential role in misinterpreting drug instructions, insufficient medical history disclosure, or difficulty adhering to complex prescription schedules. NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 4 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue Various contributory human factors cause medication errors (MEs) in hospital pharmacies. These factors include individual elements like fatigue and emotional stress, organizational aspects such as support systems and communication, task-related challenges like high workload during specific shifts, and team dynamics, including interprofessional communication. It is crucial to deal with these human factors for enhancing patient safety within the framework of hospital pharmacy settings. (Faraj et al., 2020). Another study by Kuitunen et al. (2020) describes avoiding safety procedures for high-alert drugs, drug knowledge gaps, calculation errors, double-checking lapses, and LASA medication confusion as systemic causes of medication errors. Addressing these flaws and standardizing processes are critical for improving medicine safety during administration, prescribing, and preparation. Discusses Potential Solutions for Medication Errors Medication errors require a wide range of approaches addressing their underlying causes. Potential solutions to ensure positive outcomes include integrated computerized pharmacy systems. Additionally, staff management and a process improvement approach are crucial. These solutions collectively aim to improve patient safety and reduce the risks associated with medication errors. Integrated Computerized Systems at Pharmacies Look-alike or sound-alike (LASA) errors constitute a significant part of total medication errors. These types of errors can create severe harm to patient health and safety. The approaches and solutions to reduce LASA include. To reduce medication-related errors, minimize interruptions, use ‘Tall Man lettering,’ and leverage barcode technology. One potential solution is using the technology of barcode medication delivery to ensure that the given medicine is correct. Healthcare providers should be informed about LASA medication combinations and computerized physician order entry systems with notifications should also be used to minimize errors (Baryan et al., 2020). The pros and cons of this solution are that proactive measures such as technology integration and healthcare provider education enhance patient safety while neglecting LASA errors, which can lead to patient harm, legal issues, and increased healthcare costs.  Management of Staff Potential solutions for reducing hospital medication errors include training junior staff in medication prescribing and administration. Training should focus on being vigilant during duty hours to mitigate these errors. In these trainings, hospital management should also address environmental issues and workload management for new and old nurses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary collaboration and curriculum evaluations on pharmaceutical safety can help avoid these errors (Isaacs et al., 2020). The pros and cons are that training junior staff can improve medication safety through increased vigilance, addressing environmental challenges, and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration. Ignoring this solution can create stress and anxiety within nursing professionals, which can enhance the chance of mistakes being made by nurses. Process Improvement Approach The implementation of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in a =Thai hospital’s inpatient pharmacy was investigated by Trakulsunti et al. (2022) for the dispensing process. Some of the LSS tools used were cause-and-effect diagrams and brainstorming control charts. The study yielded significant